20.9.12

BICENTENARI DE SCHIKANEDER

Demà divendres que ve farà dos-cents anys que va morir a Viena Emanuel Schikaneder, dramaturg, director i empresari teatral, actor, cantant i ocasional compositor, i autor del llibret de La flauta màgica, que el 30 de setembre de 1791 s’estrenava amb gran èxit al teatre Auf der Wieden, en un suburbi vienès. La música de Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, amic de Schikaneder, va contribuir sens dubte a l’èxit del cèlebre singspiel, però seria injust recordar Schikaneder tan sols per aquesta obra.


Un home de teatre
Nascut a Straubing l’1 de setembre de 1751, el nostre home va ser educat pels jesuïtes a Ratisbona. La seva catedral va testificar les primeres passes com a cantant, perquè de nen Schikaneder formava part de l’escola coral del temple. Entre 1773 i 1774, Schikaneder va entrar a formar part d’una companyia teatral itinerant i el 1775 o el 1776 aquell grup estrenava a Innsbruck Die Lyranten, singspiel amb lletra i música del futur autor de La flauta màgica. El 1786 estrenava a Salzburg Das Urianische Schloss, la segona obra músico-teatral amb llibret i música de Schikaneder, si bé cal pensar que el seu estil seria de tall eminentment popular i ocasionalment arranjador de peces ja existents.
Casat amb una actriu membre de la companyia, Eleonore Arth, Schikaneder es va distingir també com a actor: el seu èxit indiscutible va ser el paper titular del Hamlet shakesperià, que va interpretar a Munic i a Salzburg. Va ser en aquesta ciutat, el 1780, on Schikaneder, ja director de la companyia itinerant, va conèixer la família Mozart i es va fer amic d’un Wolfgang Amadeus de 24 anys, amant del teatre i a qui la ciutat cardenalícia se li feia massa petita.
El 1785, Schikaneder va establir-se a Viena, on va ser actor del Teatre Nacional. El 1789, establia a la capital imperial el Theater auf der Wieden com a director, empresari i principal actor. Va ser en aquest local on Schikaneder va escriure diverses peces teatrals i llibrets per a singspiel de rerefons màgic i per a representacions molt lluïdes ateses les catacterístiques tècniques i les possibilitats escèniques del teatre. És en base a aquestes possibilitats que es va concebre una obra com La flauta màgica, inspirada en obres anteriors i amb el rerefons de la francmaçoneria, societat secreta a la que Schikander havia pertangut ocasionalment i de la que coneixia els rituals iniciàtics. No cal dir que el paper més carismàtic de l’òpera, l’ocellaire Papageno, va ser interpretat pel propi llibretista.

Més enllà de La flauta màgica

El 1798, Schikaneder va escriure el llibret per a una segona part de La flauta màgica, El laberint o La lluita contra els elements. Mozart feia set anys que havia mort, de manera que la partitura va anar a càrrec de Peter von Winter. Schikaneder va tornar a interpretar el paper de Papageno i el de la Reina de la Nit va anar a càrrec de la soprano Josepha Hofer-Mayer, nascuda com a Josepha Weber, germana de Konstanze Weber i, per tant, cunyada de Mozart. Una òpera, per cert, que enguany ha recuperat el Festival de Salzburg.
Abans de La flauta màgica, el Theater auf der Wieden ja havia presentat un singspiel de rerefons mitomàgic i, com l’òpera de Mozart, imbuïda de rerefons egipici. Es tracta de La pedra del filòsof.
Al teatre de Schikaneder treballava un equip de cantants-actors com ara Benedikt Schak (futur Tamino de La flauta màgica), Franz Josef Gerl (el futur Sarastro de la mateixa obra) i Johann Baptist Henneberg. Aquests tres músics, a més de Schikaneder i de Mozart, van ser els autors d’una obra col.lectiva en forma de singspiel i estrenada l’11 de setembre de 1790, Der Stein des Weisen, és a dir La pedra del filòsof. Una peça en dos actes amb números diversos compostos pels cinc músics. El 1996, el musicòleg David Buch va trobar-ne la partitura i va localitzar dos fragments més de Mozart a més de l’únic que es coneixia.
El singspiel La pedra de filòsof és, com La flauta màgica, una “zauberoper”, és a dir una òpera màgica en què l’element místic i còmic es donen la mà, suposadament ateses les possibilitats tècniques del teatre Auf der Wieden. L’argument està extret del conte Nadir i Nadine del recull Dschinnistan recopilat pel poeta Christoph Martin Wieland.
Com a singspiel que és, l’obra té parts parlades i d’altres de cantades (sempre en alemany) i, tot i estar escrita per cinc compositors, hi ha una sorprenent unitat estilística com es pot comprovar en la versió discogràfica del segell Telarc.
Schikaneder va prosperar empresarialment i econòmicament, i el 1801 va traslladar la seva companyia a un local molt més ben equipat, el Theater an der Wien, encara dempeus avui, i a la porta del qual hi ha una petita escultura representant un Papageno.
Amb tot, els anys de glòria d’aquella nova etapa durarien poc, perquè Schikaneder, malalt de sífilis, va embogir i va quedar reclòs els últims cinc anys de la seva vida fins que va morir a Viena el 21 de setembre de 1812.





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Gràcies Jaume per donar-nos a conèixer un xic més, no solament de Schikaneder, sinó de l'univers del nostre estimat Mozart. Molt interessant el que expliques. Amilcament . Mariàngels

 
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